Nutrition Hor D’oeuvres


  • Graham Flour – Coarser flour made by finely grinding the grain’s endosperm, then mixing bran and some or all of the wheat germ back in. Sweet, nutty flavor. Gives bread a coarse, dense texture. May be substituted for some white flour in bread making; may need longer baking time.
  • All Purpose Flour – Refined blend of high-gluten hard wheat and low-gluten soft wheat. Milled with only the endosperm- for baking, thickening and breading. Usually sold pre-sifted. Some fortified with calcium and vitamins A or D.
  • Cake or Pastry Flour – Fine-textured refine flour made from soft wheat. High in starch. Used for tender cakes and pastries.
  • Bread Flour – Refined flour made from hard wheat and a small amount of barley flour. Very high gluten content. Used for bread making.
  • Semolina Flour – Generally coarsely-milled, refined hard durum wheat flour. Used for pasta, couscous, gnocchi and puddings. High in gluten. Coarsely-mlled other wheat varietals or grains also may be called semolina, such as corn semolina(grits) and rice semolina.
  • 100% Whole Wheat Flour – Made from hulled red wheat grain(wheatberries). Provides more fiber and other nutrients. Used in place of all purpose flour. Makes a heavier bread; in baked goods, often mixed with all-purpose flour for a lighter texture and better rising. Has a shorter shelf-life than all-purpose flour.
  • Gluten Flour – Refined flour made from hard wheat with most starch removed. Significantly higher protein(gluten) content than all-purpose flour. Increases strength and rising power of the dough. Blend with lower-gluten flours for bread.
  • White Whole Wheat Flour – Made from hulled white spring wheat. Use instead of regular whole-wheat flour in baked goods for a milder taste and a lighter color.
  • Self-Rising Flour – All-purpose flour with added salt and baking soda. Convenience product not generally used for yeast breads. Leavening action of baking soda can diminish if stored too long.
  • Almond Meal Flour – Made from blanched almonds. Low in carbohydrates, high in protein. Adds moisture, and nutty taste to pastries, baked goods and dessert filling. Not meant to replace flour in yeast or quick breads. Short shelf life.
  • Amaranth Flour – Ground from an ancient seed. Has a high level of complete protein, including lysine. Used in baked goods up to 25 percent of flour content. Excellent thickener for sauces, gravies an dsoups. Has a slightly sweet, nutty flour.
  • Peanut Flour – Made from crushed, fully or partly defatted peanuts. Use to thicken or add flavor to soups and sauces. Adds nutty flavor to baked goods or main dishes.
  • Soy Flour – Made from milled soybeans. High in protein, lower in carbohydrate than all-purpose flour. Good source of calcium and excellent source of iron and magnesium. Use to thicken sauces. Reduces fat absorption in frying batter or dough. Lightly toast in a dry skillet over moderate heat for a nutty flavor.
  • Rye Flour – Heavy, dark flour made from rye. Contains less gluten than all-purpose flour or whole wheat flour. Produces heavy, dense bread. For better rising, blend with a  higher protein flour. Mostly sold as medium rye flour; light and dark rye flours available. Pumpernickel flour is dark rye flour made from whole grain and used in bread making.
  • Corn Flour – Milled from the whole corn kernel. Use in breading or blend with other flour for batters or dough.
  • Rice Flour (Brown) – Made from unpolished brown rice. Nutty flavor, used like white flour, but gives a grittier texture in baked goods such as cornbread and pound cake.
  • Oat Flour – Ground from oat groats. Used to replace some flour in a variety of recipes. Adds a rich, nutty flavor and denser texture In baked foods that need to rise, must be combined with other flours.
  • Barley Flour – Made from pearl or whole-grain barley. Adds fiber to baked goods. Contains gluten, but not enough for adequate rising. Good as a thickener in soups, stews, sauces and gravies.
  • Potato Flour – Ground from whole, dried potatoes. Use as a thickener for smooth, creamy sauces, soups, gravies and frozen desserts. For baking, adds starch to dough, which attracts and holds water; makes bread more moist and extends freshness. In meat, chicken, fish and vegetable patties, extends, binds and retains moisture.
  • Sorghum Flour – Ground from ancient grain sorghum. Mild in flavor High in antioxidants. Use in cookies, cakes, brownies, breads, pizza dough, pastas, cereals, pancakes and waffles.
  • Rice Flour(White) – Made from white rice. Used mostly in baked goods such as pie crusts and cookies. In shortbread, gives a tender mouth feel. Sweet or glutinous “sticky” rice flour is made from high-starch, short-grain rice, which is used to thicken sauces in Asian dishes.
  • Flaxseed Flour or Meal – Made by milling whole flaxseeds, making Omega-3’s available. In baked goods, use as a fat or egg substitution.
  • Spelt Flour – Made from spelt, an ancient grain and cousin to wheat. Slightly higher in protein than wheat flour. Has a mellow, nutty flavor. Can be substituted for wheat flour in baking. Ma cause reactions in wheat-allergic people. Both refined an whole spelt flour available.
  • Buckwheat Flour – Made from buckwheat, a cousin of rhubarb. Combine with other flours to add a hearty, grassy flavor and color to bread. Good for pasta and pancakes. Whole buckwheat flour has a stronger flavor and more nutrients. White buckwheat is milder and has fewer nutrients.
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